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CATS synonyms, CATS pronunciation, CATS translation, English dictionary definition of CATS. n. 1. a. A small domesticated carnivorous mammal , kept as a pet and as catcher of vermin, and existing in a variety of breeds.


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This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet.
For the cat family, see.
For other uses, see and.
It is the only in the family and often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the.
The cat is either a house cat, kept as aor afreely ranging and avoiding human contact.
A house cat is valued by for companionship and for its ability to hunt.
About 60 are recognized by various.
Cats are similar in to the other felid species, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey.
They are who are most active at dawn and dusk.
Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals.
Compared to humans, they see better in the dark they see in near total darkness and have a betterbut poorer.
Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a.
Cats also communicate by secreting and perceiving.
Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens.
Domestic cats can be bred and shown as registereda hobby known as.
Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by andas well as abandonment of pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats good what are expresscard slots used for right!, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, and evoking.
It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because were venerated since around 3100.
However, the earliest indication for the of an F.
African wildcats were probably first domesticated in the.
The Prionailurus bengalensis was independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today.
As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the U.
As of 2017, it was ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish andwith around 8 million being owned.
The number of cats in the United Kingdom has nearly doubled since 1965, when the cat population was 4.
It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta used around 75 AD bycompare also κάττα, and gato, chat, qattus, katė, and kotъ kot'among others.
The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an language, but every proposed source word has presented problems.
Many references refer to "Berber" kaddîska, 'wildcat', and kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M.
Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic due to morphological alternations and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed fromcf.
In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a.
Alternative term An alternative word is English extended as pussy and pussycat.
Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from poes or from puuskatte, related to kattepus, or pus, pusekatt.
Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and puisín or puiscín.
The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply used to attract a cat.
Inthe word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling.
Taxonomy The Felis catus for the domestic cat was proposed by in the published in 1758.
Felis catus domesticus was a scientific name proposed by the German naturalist in 1777.
Felis daemon proposed by in 1904 was a black cat specimen from thelater identified as a domestic cat.
In 2003, the ICZN fixed the scientific name for the wildcat as F.
The same commission ruled that the domestic cat is a distinct Felis catus.
Following results of research, the domestic cat was considered a F.
In 2017, the IUCN Cat Classification Taskforce followed the recommendation of the ICZN in regarding the domestic cat as a distinct species.
Evolution Main article: Before domestication The domestic cat is a member of the Felidae, a that had a about 10—15 million years ago.
The Felis from the Felidae around 6—7 million years ago.
Members of this genus include the F.
Results of research confirm that these wild Felis species evolved through orwhereas the domestic cat evolved through.
Domestication A cat sitting under a chair, a in an Egyptian tomb dating to the 15th century BC The earliest known indication for a African wildcat was close by a human grave insouthern Cyprus, dating to about 9,200 to 9,500 years before present.
As source is no evidence of native mammalian on Cyprus, the inhabitants of this Neolithic village most likely brought the cat and other wild mammals to the island from the continent.
Scientists therefore assume that African wildcats were attracted to early human settlements in the by rodents, in particular the Mus musculusand were tamed by Neolithic farmers.
This relationship between early farmers and tamed cats lasted thousands of years.
As spread, so did tame and domesticated cats.
Wildcats of Egypt contributed to the maternal of the domestic cat at a later time.
The earliest known evidence for the occurrence of the domestic cat in dates to around 1200 BC.
Greek,and traders introduced domestic cats to southern Europe.
By the 5th century BC, it was a familiar animal around settlements in and.
Domesticated cats were introduced to and during the before the beginning of the.
The Egyptian domestic cat lineage is evidenced in a port in northern by the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century.
During domestication, cats have undergone only minor changes in anatomy and behavior, and they are still capable of surviving in the wild.
House cats often interbreed with feral cats, producing hybrids such as the in.
Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have them for domestication as pets.
These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.
Characteristics Diagram of the general of a male Size Domestic cats are generally smaller than wildcats in both and limb measurements.
Adult domestic cats typically weigh between 4 and 5 kg 9 and 10 lb although many breeds have a wide range of sizes, with male American Shorthairs, a common breed, ranging from 3 and 7 kg 7 to 15 lb Somesuch as thecan occasionally exceed 11 kg 24 lb.
Very small cats, less than 2 kg 4 lbhave been reported.
The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg 50 lb.
Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats.
The average feral adult male weighs 4 kg 9 lband the average adult female 3 kg 7 lb.
Skeleton Cats have seven as do most ; 13 humans have 12 ; seven humans have five ; three as do most mammals, but humans have five ; and a variable number of in the tail humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal.
Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the.
Skull Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large and a powerful specialized jaw.
When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two longinserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing itscausing irreversible and death.
Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.
The and first together compose the pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors.
These are vital in feeding, since cats' small cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.
Ambulation Cats, like dogs, are.
They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.
Cats are capable of walking very precisely very what games are free on xbox live in june nice, like allthey directly register; that is, they place each hind paw almost directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks.
This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain.
Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" ; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side.
This trait is shared with and.
As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals and many other land animals, such as : the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.
Claws Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable.
In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and around the 's toe pads.
This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey.
The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.
Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws.
They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing,or for extra traction on soft surfaces.
Most cats have five claws on their front paws, continue reading four on their rear paws.
The fifth front claw the is to the other claws.
More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger".
This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of and dogs.
It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping.
Some breeds of cats are prone to extra toes and claws.
These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.
Senses Reflection of camera flash from the Vision Cats have excellent and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.
Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes.
Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have.
These slit pupils can focus bright light withoutand are needed since the domestic what are the best free to play online games pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.
At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.
However, domestic cats have rather poor and like most nonprimate mammals have only two types ofoptimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.
A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the which might be due to a third type of cone.
However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true vision.
Hearing Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies.
They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.
Cats can hearwhich is important in hunting because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.
However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do.
Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal, being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.
This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears theirwhich both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.
Smell Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed and a large surface ofabout 5.
Accessory smell Cats and many other animals have a in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of.
It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot.
Cats are sensitive to such aswhich they use to communicate through and marking with.
Many cats also respond strongly to plants that containespeciallyas they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.
About 70—80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.
This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine and the herb ; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.
Taste Cats have relatively few compared to humans 470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue.
Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste.
Their taste buds instead respond tolikeand tastes.
Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C 100 °F which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated which would signal to the are cats free that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing.
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch.
Whiskers To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable over their body, especially their faces.
These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective to protect the eyes from damage.
In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a.
Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory.
A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.
Balance During a fall from a high place, a cat reflexively twists its body and rights itself to land on its feet using its acute and flexibility.
This reflex is known as the.
An individual cat always rights itself in the same way during a fall, provided it has sufficient time to do so.
The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm 3.
Cats without a tail also have this reflex.
Physiology Normal physiological values : 330 38.
Heat tolerance Cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C 100 °Fbut cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C 126 °F: 46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C 133 °F if they have access https://new-fit.ru/are/what-are-good-free-online-games-to-play.html water.
Temperature regulation Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths.
Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, and only at very high temperatures but may also pant when stressed.
A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.
Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, and can even rehydrate by drinking.
Nutrition Food sources Cats are : their has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.
In contrast to such aswhich only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.
A cat's is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the needed to digest carbohydrates.
These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain.
Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet.
Some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.
Cats do eat occasionally.
A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of.
Another is that it is used to supplyhelping the cat more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and.
Dietary components Arginine Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of theand a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.
Arginine is essential in the in order to convert the toxic component into that can then be excreted in the urine.
Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a buildup of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.
The symptoms of includevomiting,and can be serious enough to induce death and in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet.
The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the otherwhich will continue to be by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.
This limits the ability of cats to the taurine they need from its precursor, thewhich ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.
Deficiencies in taurine are in great free things life that in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.
These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.
Niacin is an essential vitamin for the cat; dietary deficiency can lead to anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature.
Biosynthesis of occurs by metabolism of via the tothe niacin precursor.
However, cats have a high activity of picolinic acid carboxylase, which converts one of the intermediates to instead of quinolinic acid.
As a result, niacin can become deficient and require.
Vitamin A Preformed is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health.
Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet.
Normally, the conversion of into vitamin A occurs in the intestine more specifically the mucosal layer of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.
Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme which converts the beta-carotene into vitamin A.
To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of not taking place.
Vitamin D is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.
Cats here high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to.
This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of and.
Essential fatty acids Cats, like all mammals, need to getanfrom their diet.
Most mammals can convert linoleic acid toas well as the and through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.
The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate salt form of arachidonic acid in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.
This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid.
Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to https://new-fit.ru/are/what-are-some-fun-games-i-can-play-online.html in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin e.
Behavior Vocalizing domestic cat Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.
The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be moreas a response to greater human activity at these times.
Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares 17—69 acres.
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older.
The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average.
Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours.
The term "" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep lightly for a brief period.
While asleep, cats experience short periods of often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are.
Sociability Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.
Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.
Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.
These territories are marked byby rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.
Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts.
Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and are cats free, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks.
Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a and always hunt alone.
A kitten milk from its mother.
However, some pet cats are poorly socialized.
In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.
Though cats and dogs arethey can live together if correctly socialized.
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals.
The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly difficult for humans to ignore.
Domestic cats' behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.
By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.
The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats; for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility.
Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group'swith dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.
Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed bywhich is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and kittens.
Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, or eating.
The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive.
The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.
However, felids of the genus,and also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.
Grooming A housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it.
Cats are known what are some 2 player facebook spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean.
The cat's has backwards-facing spines about 500 long, which are called.
These contain which makes them rigid so the papillae act like a hairbrush.
Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming.
These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2—3 cm 0.
Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through theas well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.
Among feral cats, the most common reason for is competition between two males to mate with a female.
In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.
Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.
Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens.
Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to.
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat.
When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.
Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward.
They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent.
Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites.
Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears.
However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations.
Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated.
In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of.
Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.
Hunting and feeding A cat that is playing with a caught mouse.
Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats visit web page small prey, primarily birds and rodents, and are often used as a form of pest control.
Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.
The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats.
Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.
In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.
Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or until an animal comes close enough to be captured.
Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.
This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.
This behavior is referred to in the "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians.
Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to thein which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.
Anthropologist and zoologistin his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".
Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.
Cats may reject novel flavors a response termed and learn quickly to in the past.
They may also avoid sugary foods and milk.
Most adult cats are ; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or.
They can also develop odd eating habits.
Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal.
This condition,can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult of around the cat's weight at 4 kg 8.
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction, they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths.
Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.
Speed The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog excluding those born to run and race, such as the but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Cat playing with a lizard Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play.
This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to prey.
Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans.
This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest they become in a toy they have played with before.
Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.
String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into thea medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.
Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a 's dot, which cats may chase.
Reproduction When cats mate, the tomcat male bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to known as.
Radiography of a pregnant cat.
The skeletons of two fetuses are visible on the are there any casinos in key west florida and right of the uterus.
Female cats are seasonallywhich means they may have many periods of over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn.
Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.
Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat.
The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate.
At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate.
The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120—150 backwards-pointingwhich are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female'swhich acts to.
This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second or more mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.
After mating, the female washes her thoroughly.
If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him.
After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.
Furthermore, cats are ; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.
A newborn The forms 124 hours after conception.
At 148 hours, early blastocysts form.
At 10—12 days, implantation occurs.
The period of queens is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.
Data on reproductive capacity of more than 2,300 free-ranging queens were collected during a study between May 1998 and October 2000.
They had one to six kittens perwith an average of three kittens.
They produced a mean of 1.
Of 169 kittens, 127 died before they were six months old due to a trauma caused in most cases by dog attacks and road accidents.
The first litter is usually smaller than subsequent litters.
Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks of age.
Queens normally reach sexual maturity at 5—10 months, and males at 5—7 months.
This varies depending on breed.
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, when they are ready to leave their mother.
They can be surgically spayed or as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.
This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, spraying urine in males and yowling calling in females.
Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed beforeat about three to six months.
In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.
Ecology Habitats A in snowy weather The domestic cat necessary what are rig slots for in eve agree a and occurs across much of the world.
It can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts.
It is adaptable and now present on all continents exceptand on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the.
The domestic cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's most.
As it is little altered from the wildcat, it can readily interbreed with the wildcat.
This poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in and and possibly also the.
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.
Their habitats include small islands with no human inhabitants.
The close relatives of the domestic cat, the Felis lybica and the F.
Domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.
Feral cats Feral Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state.
They are unfamiliar click and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.
The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.
Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in largewhich occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.
Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the andwith cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.
One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped,against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia andand then released.
Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again.
Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives.
Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.
Impact on prey species Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations.
Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.
Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.
In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.
In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.
However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated.
For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing.
In isolated landmasses, such asthere are often no other native, medium-sized predators including other feline species ; this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.
Native species such as the New Zealand and the Australianfor example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.
Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such ascats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' such as the numbers of prey available.
This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging.
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent locations such as tall grass are kept under control.
While cats are effective at preventing rodentthey are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.
Impact on birds A black cat eating a The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds.
UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.
A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.
Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of mortality is linked to the domestic cat.
In the recovery of ringed robins and dunnocks31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.
In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as and on bird numbers and variety.
The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, what the amazon fire tv games can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.
In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect; where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey.
Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction.
Some of the same factors that have promoted of island over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time.
The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland click here, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.
The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.
These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence ofsuch as the domestic cat.
Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety" and ground-nesting, have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans A woman holding two cats Cats are common throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million as of 2007.
Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, a 2007 reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international and industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys; and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat.
This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.
Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise ofand are still made into blankets in as believed to help.
In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of in the thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations such as the 's one and over the Internet, but such a task does not seem simple to achieve.
General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.
Cats are popular as a subject of art and photography, made his career photographing cats after his 1949 images of Loco, an especially charming stray taken in, were published around the world.
He is reported to have photographed 90,000 cats during his career and maintained an archive of 225,000 images that he drew from for publications during his lifetime.
Cat show Main article: A is a judged event in which the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.
Both and companion or moggy cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization.
Cats are compared to a breed standard, and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize.
Moggies are judged based on their temperament.
Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: A is a theme whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.
Ailurophobia Main article: Greek αἴλουρος ailouros'cat' and φόβος phóbos'fear' is a fear of cats.
The term may also be used to mean a hatred of cats.
Cat bites Main article: Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive.
Complications from cat bites can develop.
A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets.
This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep.
Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps that cause.
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Cats can be or infested with, or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.
In some cases, the cat exhibits no of the disease, However, the same disease can then become evident in a human.
The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and status of the person.
Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat and exiting the cat's body.
Some of the infections of most concern includeand.
History and mythology A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat In ancient Egypt, cats werewith the goddess often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.
Families took their dead cats to the sacred city ofwhere they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.
The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of and respectively, playing with their pet cats.
Even during later times, were far more commonly kept as pets and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.
The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail", : 57 but this word could also be applied to any of the are cats free long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".
Cats are rarely mentioned inbut does remark in his that "female cats are naturally.
During themany of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the.
Cats are often shown in icons of and of the and, according toon the same night that Mary gave birth toa virgin cat in gave birth to a kitten.
Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during theas were carried on to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.
In Japan, the cat is a symbol of good fortune.
In, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.
Inthe first cat was living in the house of the first man as a pet that got rid of.
The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.
It is also written that neither cats nor are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.
Although no species are sacred in Islam.
Some Western writers have stated had a favorite cat.
He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".
The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later saint,centuries after Muhammad.
One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "" Father of thein reference to his documented affection to cats.
Superstitions and rituals Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them.
Many cultures have negative about cats.
An example would be the belief that a "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' used to augment a witch's powers and skills.
The killing of cats in Medieval, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day cat parade.
In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment.
According tothe assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally ".
The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck.
The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands.
In 1648crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall.
But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the are cats free bonfire in Paris.
At midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people.
Similarly atin the of thecats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire.
In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives, while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.
The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations.
Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling are cats free often land on their feet, using an instinctive to twist their bodies around.
Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.
Lifespan Main articles: and The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent decades.
In the early 1980s, it was about seven years, : 33 rising to 9.
Some cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, with the oldest known cat,dying at a verified age of 38.
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.
Disease Main article: Diseases which affect cats include acute infections, parasitic infestations, injuries; and chronic here such as, and.
About 250 heritable have been identified in cats, many similar to human.
The high level of similarity among the of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as in the study of the human diseases.
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CATS synonyms, CATS pronunciation, CATS translation, English dictionary definition of CATS. n. 1. a. A small domesticated carnivorous mammal , kept as a pet and as catcher of vermin, and existing in a variety of breeds.


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This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet.
For the cat family, see.
For other uses, see and.
It is the only in the family and often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish are cats free from wild members of the.
The cat is either a house cat, kept as aor afreely ranging and avoiding human contact.
A house cat is valued by for companionship and for its ability to hunt.
About 60 are recognized by various.
Cats are similar in to the other felid species, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey.
They are who are most active at dawn and dusk.
Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals.
Compared to humans, they see better in the dark they see in near total darkness and have a betterbut poorer.
Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a.
Cats also communicate by secreting and perceiving.
Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens.
Domestic cats can be bred and shown as registereda hobby known as.
Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by andas well as abandonment of pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, and evoking.
It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because were venerated since around 3100.
However, the earliest indication for the of an F.
African wildcats were probably first domesticated in the.
The Prionailurus bengalensis was independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today.
As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the U.
As of 2017, it was ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish andwith around 8 million being owned.
The number of cats in the United Kingdom has nearly doubled since 1965, when the cat population was 4.
It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta used around 75 AD bycompare also κάττα, and gato, chat, qattus, katė, and kotъ kot'among others.
The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an language, but every proposed source word has presented problems.
Many references refer to "Berber" kaddîska, 'wildcat', and kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M.
Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic due to morphological alternations and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed fromcf.
In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and click at this page a.
Alternative term An alternative word is English extended as pussy and pussycat.
Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from poes or from puuskatte, related to kattepus, or pus, pusekatt.
Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and puisín or puiscín.
The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply used to attract a cat.
Inthe word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling.
Taxonomy The Felis catus for the domestic cat was proposed by in the published in 1758.
Felis catus domesticus was a scientific name proposed by the German naturalist in 1777.
Felis daemon proposed by in 1904 was a black cat specimen from thelater identified as a domestic cat.
In 2003, the ICZN fixed the scientific name for the wildcat as F.
The same commission ruled that the domestic cat is a distinct Felis catus.
Following results of research, the domestic cat was considered a F.
In 2017, the IUCN Cat Classification Taskforce followed the recommendation of the ICZN in regarding the domestic cat as a distinct species.
Evolution Main article: Before domestication The domestic cat is a member of the Felidae, a that had a about 10—15 million years ago.
The Felis from the Felidae around 6—7 million years ago.
Members of this genus include the F.
Results of research confirm that these wild Felis species evolved through orwhereas the domestic cat evolved through.
Domestication A cat sitting under a chair, a in an Egyptian tomb dating to the 15th century BC The earliest known indication for a African wildcat was close by a human grave insouthern Cyprus, dating to about 9,200 to 9,500 years before present.
As there is no evidence of native mammalian on Cyprus, the inhabitants of this Neolithic village most likely brought the cat and other wild mammals to the island from the continent.
Scientists therefore assume that African wildcats were attracted to early human settlements in the by rodents, in particular the Mus musculusand were tamed by Neolithic farmers.
This relationship between early farmers and tamed cats lasted thousands of years.
As spread, so did tame and domesticated cats.
Wildcats of Egypt contributed to the maternal of the domestic cat at a later time.
The earliest known evidence for the occurrence of the domestic cat in dates to around 1200 BC.
Greek,and traders introduced domestic cats to southern Europe.
By the 5th century BC, it was a familiar animal around settlements in and.
Domesticated cats were introduced to and during the before the beginning of the.
The Egyptian domestic cat lineage is evidenced in a port in northern by the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century.
During domestication, cats have undergone only minor changes in anatomy and behavior, and they are still capable of surviving in the wild.
House cats often interbreed with feral cats, producing hybrids such as the in.
Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have them for domestication as pets.
These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.
Characteristics Diagram of the general of a male Article source Domestic cats are generally smaller than wildcats in both and limb measurements.
Adult domestic cats typically weigh between 4 and 5 kg 9 and 10 lb although many breeds have a wide range of sizes, with male American Shorthairs, a common breed, ranging from 3 and 7 kg 7 to 15 lb Somesuch as thecan occasionally exceed 11 kg 24 lb.
Very small cats, less than 2 kg 4 lbhave been reported.
The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg 50 lb.
Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats.
The average feral adult male weighs 4 kg 9 lband the average adult female 3 kg 7 lb.
Skeleton Cats have seven as do most ; 13 humans have 12 ; seven humans have five ; three as do most mammals, but humans have five ; and a variable number of in the tail humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal.
Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the.
Skull Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large and a powerful specialized jaw.
When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two longinserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing itscausing irreversible and death.
Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.
The and first together compose the pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors.
These are vital in feeding, since cats' small cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.
Ambulation Cats, like dogs, are.
They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.
Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like allthey directly register; that is, they place each hind paw almost directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks.
This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain.
Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" ; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side.
This trait is shared with and.
As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals and many other land animals, such as : the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.
Claws Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable.
In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and around the 's toe pads.
This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey.
The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.
Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws.
They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing,or for extra traction on soft surfaces.
Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.
The fifth front claw the is to the other claws.
More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger".
This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of and dogs.
It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping.
Some breeds of cats are prone to extra toes and claws.
These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.
Senses Reflection are cats free camera flash from the Vision Cats have excellent and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.
Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes.
Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have.
These slit pupils can focus bright light withoutand are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.
At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.
However, domestic cats have rather poor and like most nonprimate mammals have only two types ofoptimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.
A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the which might be due to a third type of cone.
However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true vision.
Hearing Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies.
They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.
Cats can hearwhich is important in hunting because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.
However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do.
Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal, being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.
This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears theirwhich both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.
Smell Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed and a large surface ofabout 5.
Accessory smell Cats and many other animals have a in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of.
It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot.
Cats are sensitive to such aswhich they use to communicate through and marking with.
Many cats also respond strongly to plants that containespeciallyas they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.
About 70—80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.
This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine and the herb ; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.
Taste Cats have relatively few compared to humans 470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue.
Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste.
Their taste buds instead respond tolikeand tastes.
Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C 100 °F which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing.
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch.
Whiskers To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable over their body, especially their faces.
These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective to protect the eyes from damage.
In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a.
Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory.
A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.
Balance During a fall from a high place, a cat reflexively twists its body and rights itself to land on its feet using its acute and flexibility.
This reflex is known as the.
An individual cat always rights itself in the same way during a fall, provided it has sufficient time to do so.
The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm 3.
Cats without a tail also have this reflex.
Physiology Normal physiological values : 330 38.
Heat tolerance Cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C 100 °Fbut cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C 126 °F: 46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C 133 °F if they have access to water.
Temperature regulation Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths.
Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, and only at very high temperatures but may also pant when stressed.
A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of and may reflect their tendency to be article source both during the day and at night.
Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, and can even rehydrate by drinking.
Nutrition Food sources Cats are : their has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.
In contrast to such aswhich only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.
A cat's is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the needed to digest carbohydrates.
These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain.
Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet.
Some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.
Cats do eat occasionally.
A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of.
Another is that it is used to supplyhelping the cat more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and.
Dietary components Arginine Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of theand a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.
Arginine is essential in the in order to convert the toxic component into that can then be excreted in the urine.
Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a buildup of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.
The symptoms of includevomiting,and can be serious enough to induce death and in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet.
The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the otherwhich will continue to be by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.
This limits the ability of cats to the taurine they need from its precursor, thewhich ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.
Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.
These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.
Niacin is an essential vitamin for the cat; dietary deficiency can lead to anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature.
Biosynthesis of occurs by metabolism of via the tothe niacin precursor.
However, cats have a high activity of picolinic acid carboxylase, which converts one of the intermediates to instead of quinolinic acid.
As a result, niacin can become deficient and require.
Vitamin A Preformed is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health.
Vitamin Link is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet.
Normally, the conversion of into vitamin A occurs in the intestine more specifically the mucosal layer of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.
Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme which converts the beta-carotene into vitamin A.
To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of not taking place.
Vitamin D is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.
Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to.
This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of and.
Essential fatty acids Cats, like all mammals, need to getanfrom their diet.
Most mammals can convert linoleic acid toas well as the and through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.
The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, article source arachidonate salt form of arachidonic acid in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.
This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid.
Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin e.
Behavior Vocalizing domestic cat Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.
The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be moreas a response to greater human activity at these times.
Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares 17—69 acres.
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older.
The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average.
Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours.
The term "" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep lightly for a brief period.
While asleep, cats experience short periods of often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are.
Sociability Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.
Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.
Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.
These territories are marked byby rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.
Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts.
Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and and, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks.
Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a and always hunt alone.
A kitten milk from its mother.
However, some pet cats are poorly socialized.
In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.
Though cats and dogs arethey can live together if correctly socialized.
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals.
The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly difficult for humans to ignore.
Domestic cats' behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.
By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.
The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats; for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility.
Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group'swith dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate more info />Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed bywhich is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and kittens.
Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, or eating.
The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive.
The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.
However, felids of the genus,and also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.
Grooming A housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it.
Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean.
The cat's has backwards-facing spines about 500 long, which are called.
These contain which makes them rigid so the papillae act like a hairbrush.
Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming.
These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2—3 cm 0.
Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through theas well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.
Among feral cats, the most common reason for is competition between two males to mate with a female.
In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.
Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.
Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens.
Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to.
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat.
When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.
Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward.
They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent.
Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites.
Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears.
However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations.
Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated.
In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of.
Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.
Hunting and feeding A cat that is playing with a caught mouse.
Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents, and are often used as a form of pest control.
Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.
The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats.
Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.
In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.
Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or until an animal comes close enough to be captured.
Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.
This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.
This behavior is referred to in the "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians.
Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to thein which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.
Anthropologist and zoologistin his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".
Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.
Cats may reject novel flavors a response termed and learn quickly to in the past.
They may also avoid sugary foods and milk.
Most adult cats are ; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or.
They can also develop odd eating habits.
Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal.
This condition,can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult of around the cat's weight at 4 kg 8.
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction, they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths.
Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.
Speed The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog excluding those born to run and race, such as the but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Cat playing with a lizard Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play.
This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to prey.
Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans.
This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest they become in a toy they have played with before.
Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.
String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into thea medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.
Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a 's dot, which cats may chase.
Reproduction When cats mate, the tomcat male bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to known as.
Radiography of a pregnant cat.
The skeletons of two fetuses are visible on the left and right of the uterus.
Female cats are seasonallywhich means they may have many periods of over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn.
Heat periods occur are private poker games legal in texas every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.
Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat.
The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate.
At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate.
The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120—150 backwards-pointingwhich are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female'swhich acts to.
This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second or more mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.
After mating, the female washes her thoroughly.
If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him.
After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.
Furthermore, cats are ; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.
A newborn The forms 124 hours after conception.
At 148 hours, early blastocysts form.
At 10—12 days, implantation occurs.
The period of queens is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.
Data on reproductive capacity of more than 2,300 free-ranging queens were collected during a study between May 1998 and October 2000.
They had one to six kittens perwith an average of three kittens.
They produced a mean of 1.
Of 169 kittens, 127 died before they were six months old due to a trauma caused in most cases by dog attacks and road accidents.
The first litter is usually smaller than subsequent litters.
Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks of age.
Queens normally reach sexual maturity at 5—10 months, and males at 5—7 months.
This varies depending on breed.
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, when they are ready to leave their mother.
They can be surgically spayed or as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.
This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, spraying urine in males and yowling calling in females.
Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed beforeat about three to six months.
In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.
Ecology Habitats A in snowy weather The domestic cat is a and occurs across much of the world.
It can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts.
It is adaptable and now present on all continents exceptand on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the.
The domestic cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's most.
As it is little altered from the wildcat, it can readily interbreed with the wildcat.
This poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in and and possibly also the.
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.
Their habitats include small islands with no human inhabitants.
The close relatives of the domestic cat, the Felis lybica and the F.
Domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.
Feral cats Feral Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state.
They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.
The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.
Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in largewhich occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.
Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the andwith cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.
One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped,against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia andand then released.
Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again.
Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives.
Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.
Impact on prey species Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations.
Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.
Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.
In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.
In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.
However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated.
For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing.
In isolated landmasses, such asthere are often no other native, medium-sized predators including other feline species ; this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.
Native species such as the New Zealand and the Australianfor example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.
Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such ascats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' such as the numbers of prey available.
This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging.
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent locations such as tall grass are kept under control.
While cats are effective at preventing rodentthey are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.
Impact on birds A black cat eating a The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds.
UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.
A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.
Certain are cats free appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of mortality is linked to the domestic cat.
In the recovery of ringed robins and dunnocks31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.
In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as and on bird numbers and variety.
The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.
In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect; where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey.
Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction.
Some of the same factors that have promoted of island over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time.
The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.
The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.
These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence ofsuch as the domestic cat.
Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety" and ground-nesting, have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans A woman holding two cats Cats are common throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million as of 2007.
Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, a 2007 reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international and industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys; and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat.
This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.
Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise ofand are still made into blankets in as believed to help.
In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of in the thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations such as the 's one and over the Internet, but such a task does not seem simple to achieve.
General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.
Cats are popular as a subject of art and photography, made his career photographing cats after his 1949 images of Loco, an especially charming stray taken in, were published around the world.
He is reported to have photographed 90,000 cats during his career and maintained an archive of 225,000 images that he drew from for publications during his lifetime.
Cat show Main article: A is a judged event in which the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.
Both and companion or moggy cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization.
Cats are compared to a breed standard, and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize.
Moggies are judged based on their temperament.
Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: A is a theme whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.
Ailurophobia Main article: Greek αἴλουρος ailouros'cat' and φόβος phóbos'fear' is a fear of cats.
The term may also be used to mean a hatred of cats.
Cat bites Main article: Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive.
Complications from cat bites can develop.
A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets.
This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep.
Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps that cause.
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Cats can be or infested with, or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.
In some cases, the cat exhibits no of the disease, However, the same disease can then become https://new-fit.ru/are/games-that-are-compatible-with-ipad-1.html in a human.
The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and status of the person.
Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat and exiting the cat's body.
Some of the infections of most concern includeand.
History and mythology A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat In ancient Egypt, cats werewith the goddess often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.
Families took their dead cats to the sacred city ofwhere they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.
The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of and respectively, playing with their pet cats.
Even during later times, were far more commonly kept as pets and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.
The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail", : 57 but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".
Cats are rarely mentioned inbut does remark in his that "female cats are naturally.
During themany of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the.
Cats are often shown in icons of and of the and, according toon the same night that Mary gave birth toa virgin cat check this out gave birth to a kitten.
Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during theas were carried on to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.
In Japan, the cat is a symbol of good fortune.
In, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.
Inthe first cat was living in the house of the first man as a pet that got rid of.
The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.
It is also written that neither cats nor are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.
Although no species are sacred in Islam.
Some Western writers have stated had a favorite cat.
He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".
The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later saint,centuries after Muhammad.
One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "" Father of thein reference to his documented affection to cats.
Superstitions and rituals Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them.
Many cultures have negative about cats.
An example would be the belief that a "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' used to augment a witch's powers and skills.
The killing of cats in Medieval, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day cat parade.
In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment.
According tothe assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally ".
The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck.
The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands.
In 1648crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall.
But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris.
At midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people.
Similarly atin the of thecats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire.
In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and read what are expresscard slots used for accept Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives, while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.
The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations.
Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive to twist their bodies around.
Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.
Lifespan Main articles: and The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent decades.
In the early 1980s, it was about seven years, : 33 rising to 9.
Some cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, with the oldest known cat,dying at a verified age of 38.
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.
Disease Main article: Diseases which affect cats include acute infections, parasitic infestations, injuries; and chronic diseases such as, and.
About 250 heritable have been identified in cats, many similar to human.
The high level of similarity among the of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as in the study of the human diseases.
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This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet.
For the cat family, see.
For other uses, see and.
It is the only in the family and often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the.
The cat is either a house cat, kept as aor afreely ranging and avoiding human contact.
A house cat is valued by for companionship and for its ability to hunt.
About 60 are recognized by various.
Cats are similar in to the other felid species, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey.
They are who are most active at dawn and dusk.
Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals.
Compared to humans, they see better in the dark they see in near total darkness and have a betterbut poorer.
Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a.
Cats also communicate by secreting and perceiving.
Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens.
Domestic cats can be bred and shown as registereda hobby known as.
Failure to control the breeding apologise, what slot machines are best to play good pet cats by andas well as abandonment of pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, and evoking.
It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because were venerated since around 3100.
However, the earliest indication for the of an F.
African wildcats were probably first domesticated in the.
The Prionailurus bengalensis was independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today.
As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the U.
As of 2017, it was ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish andwith around 8 million being owned.
The number of cats in the United Kingdom has nearly doubled since 1965, when the cat population was 4.
It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta used around 75 AD bycompare also κάττα, and gato, chat, qattus, katė, and kotъ kot'among others.
The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an are cats free, but every proposed source word has presented problems.
Many references refer to "Berber" kaddîska, 'wildcat', and kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M.
Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic due to morphological alternations and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed fromcf.
In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a.
Alternative term An alternative word is English extended as pussy and pussycat.
Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from poes or from puuskatte, related to kattepus, or pus, pusekatt.
Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and puisín or puiscín.
The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply used to attract a cat.
Inthe word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling.
Taxonomy The Felis catus for the domestic cat was proposed by in the published in 1758.
Felis catus domesticus was a scientific name proposed by the German naturalist in 1777.
Felis daemon proposed by in 1904 was a black cat specimen from thelater identified as a domestic cat.
In 2003, the ICZN fixed the scientific name for the wildcat as F.
The same commission ruled that the domestic cat is a distinct Felis catus.
Following results of research, the domestic are cats free was considered a F.
In 2017, the IUCN Cat Classification Taskforce followed the recommendation of the ICZN in regarding the domestic cat as a distinct species.
Evolution Main more info Before domestication The domestic cat is a member of the Felidae, a that had a about 10—15 million years ago.
The Felis from the Felidae around 6—7 million years ago.
Members of this genus include the F.
here of research confirm that these wild Felis species evolved through orwhereas the domestic cat evolved through.
Domestication A cat sitting under a chair, a in an Egyptian tomb dating to the 15th century BC The earliest known indication for a African wildcat was close by a human grave insouthern Cyprus, dating to about 9,200 to 9,500 years before present.
As there is no evidence of native mammalian on Cyprus, the inhabitants of this Neolithic village most likely brought the cat and other wild mammals to the island from the continent.
Scientists therefore assume that African wildcats were attracted to early human settlements in the by rodents, in particular the Mus musculusand were tamed by Neolithic farmers.
This relationship between early farmers and tamed cats lasted thousands of years.
As spread, so did tame and domesticated cats.
Wildcats of Egypt contributed to the maternal of the domestic cat at a later time.
The earliest known evidence for the occurrence of the domestic cat in dates to around 1200 BC.
Greek,and traders introduced domestic cats to southern Europe.
By the 5th century BC, it was a familiar animal around settlements in and.
Domesticated cats were introduced to and during the before the beginning of the.
The Egyptian domestic cat lineage is evidenced in a port in northern by the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century.
During domestication, cats have undergone only minor changes in anatomy and behavior, and they are still capable of surviving in the wild.
House cats often interbreed with feral cats, producing hybrids such as the in.
Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have them for domestication as pets.
These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.
Characteristics Diagram of the general of a male Size Domestic cats are generally smaller than wildcats in both and limb measurements.
Adult domestic cats typically weigh between 4 and 5 kg 9 and 10 lb although many breeds have a wide range of sizes, with male American Shorthairs, a common breed, ranging from 3 and 7 kg 7 to 15 lb Somesuch as thecan occasionally exceed 11 kg 24 lb.
Very small cats, less than 2 kg 4 lbhave been reported.
The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg 50 lb.
Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats.
The average feral adult male weighs 4 kg 9 lband the average adult female 3 kg 7 lb.
Skeleton Cats have seven as do most ; 13 humans have 12 ; seven humans have five ; three as do most mammals, but humans have five ; and a variable number of in the tail humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal.
Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the.
Skull Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large and a powerful specialized jaw.
When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two longinserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae click here severing itscausing irreversible and death.
Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.
The and first together compose the pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors.
These are vital in feeding, since cats' small cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.
Ambulation Cats, like dogs, are.
They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.
Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like allthey directly register; that is, they place each hind paw almost directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks.
This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain.
Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" ; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side.
This trait is shared with and.
As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals and many other land animals, such as : the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.
Claws Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable.
In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and around the 's toe pads.
This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey.
The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.
Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws.
They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing,or for extra traction on soft surfaces.
Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.
The fifth front claw the is to the other claws.
More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger".
This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of and dogs.
It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping.
Some breeds of cats are prone to extra toes and claws.
These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.
Senses Reflection of camera flash from the Vision Cats have excellent and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.
Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes.
Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have.
These slit pupils can focus bright light withoutand are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.
At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.
However, domestic cats have rather poor and like most nonprimate mammals have only two types ofoptimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.
A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the which might be due to a third type of cone.
However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true vision.
Hearing Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies.
They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.
Cats can hearwhich is important in hunting because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.
However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do.
Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal, being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.
This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears theirwhich both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.
Smell Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed and a large surface ofabout 5.
Accessory smell Cats and many other animals have a in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of.
It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot.
Cats are sensitive to such aswhich they use to communicate through and marking with.
Many cats also respond strongly to plants that containespeciallyas they can detect read article substance at less than one part per billion.
About 70—80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.
This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine and the herb ; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.
Taste Cats have relatively few compared to humans 470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue.
Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste.
Their taste buds instead respond tolikeand tastes.
Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C 100 °F which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead link therefore possibly toxic or decomposing.
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch.
Whiskers To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable over their body, especially their faces.
These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective to protect the eyes from damage.
In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a.
Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory.
A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.
Balance During a fall from a high place, a cat reflexively twists its body and rights itself to land on its feet using its acute and flexibility.
This reflex is known as the.
An individual cat always rights itself in the same way during a fall, provided it has sufficient time to do so.
The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm 3.
Cats without a tail also have this reflex.
Physiology Normal physiological values : 330 38.
Heat tolerance Cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C 100 °Fbut cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C 126 °F: 46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C 133 °F if they have access to water.
Temperature regulation Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths.
Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, and only at very high temperatures but may also pant when stressed.
A cat's body temperature does see more vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.
Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, and can even rehydrate by drinking.
Nutrition Food sources Cats are : their has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.
In contrast to such aswhich only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.
A cat's is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the needed to digest carbohydrates.
These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain.
Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet.
Some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.
Cats do eat occasionally.
A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of.
Another is that it is used to supplyhelping the cat more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and.
Dietary components Https://new-fit.ru/are/what-are-good-free-online-games-to-play.html Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of theand a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.
Arginine is essential in the in order to convert the toxic component into that can then be excreted in the urine.
Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a buildup of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.
The symptoms of includevomiting,and can be serious enough to induce death and in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet.
The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the otherwhich will continue to be by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.
This limits the ability of cats to the taurine they need from its precursor, thewhich ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.
Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.
These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.
Niacin is an essential vitamin for the cat; dietary deficiency can lead to anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature.
Biosynthesis of occurs by metabolism of via the tothe niacin precursor.
However, cats have a high activity of picolinic acid carboxylase, which converts one of the intermediates to instead of quinolinic acid.
As a result, niacin can become deficient and require.
Vitamin A Preformed is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health.
Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet.
Normally, the conversion of into vitamin A occurs in the intestine more specifically the mucosal layer of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.
Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in assured, are there casinos in jacksonville florida thank body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme which converts the beta-carotene into vitamin A.
To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of not taking place.
Vitamin D is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.
Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to.
This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of and.
Essential fatty acids Cats, like all mammals, need to getanfrom their diet.
Most mammals can convert linoleic acid toas well as the and through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.
The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate salt form of arachidonic acid in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.
This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid.
Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin e.
Behavior Vocalizing domestic cat Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.
The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be moreas a response to greater human activity please click for source these times.
Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares 17—69 acres.
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older.
The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average.
Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours.
The term "" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep lightly for a brief period.
While asleep, cats experience short periods of often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are.
Sociability Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to that gather around click at this page food source, based on groups of co-operating females.
Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.
Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.
These territories are marked byby rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.
Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts.
Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and and, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks.
Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or are cats free and always hunt alone.
A kitten milk from its mother.
However, some pet cats are poorly socialized.
In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.
Though cats and dogs arethey can live together if correctly socialized.
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals.
The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly difficult for humans to ignore.
Domestic cats' behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.
By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.
The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats; for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility.
Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group'swith dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.
Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed bywhich is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and kittens.
Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, or eating.
The mechanism are cats free which cats purr is elusive.
The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.
However, felids of the genus,and also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.
Grooming A housecat uses apologise, are there casinos in mykonos greece touching brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it.
Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean.
The cat's has backwards-facing spines about 500 long, which are called.
These contain which makes them rigid so the papillae act like a hairbrush.
Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming.
These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2—3 cm 0.
Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through theas well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.
Among feral cats, the most common reason for is competition between two males to mate with a female.
In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.
Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.
Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens.
Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to.
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat.
When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.
Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward.
They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent.
Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites.
Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears.
However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations.
Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated.
In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of.
Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.
Hunting and feeding A cat that is playing with a caught mouse.
Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents, and are often used as a form of pest control.
Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.
The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats.
Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.
In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.
Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or until an animal comes close enough to be captured.
Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.
This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.
This behavior is referred to in the "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians.
Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to thein which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.
Anthropologist and zoologistin his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".
Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.
Cats may reject novel flavors a response termed and learn quickly to in the past.
They may also avoid sugary foods and milk.
Most adult cats are ; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or.
They can also develop odd eating habits.
Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal.
This condition,can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult of around the cat's weight at 4 kg 8.
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction, they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths.
Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.
Speed The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog excluding those born to run and race, such as the but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Cat playing with a lizard Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play.
This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to prey.
Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans.
This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest they become in a toy they have played with before.
Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.
String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into thea medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.
Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a 's dot, which cats may chase.
Reproduction When cats mate, the tomcat male bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to known as.
Radiography of a pregnant cat.
The skeletons of two fetuses are visible on the left and right of the uterus.
Female cats are seasonallywhich means they may have many periods of over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn.
Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.
Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat.
The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate.
At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate.
The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about https://new-fit.ru/are/sloth-punches-eagle.html backwards-pointingwhich are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female'swhich acts to.
This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second or more mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.
After mating, the female washes her thoroughly.
If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him.
After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.
Furthermore, cats are ; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.
casinos miami there florida in are newborn The forms 124 hours after conception.
At 148 hours, early blastocysts form.
At 10—12 days, implantation occurs.
The period of queens is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.
Data on reproductive capacity of more than 2,300 free-ranging queens were collected during a study between May 1998 and October 2000.
They had one to six kittens perwith an average of three kittens.
They produced a mean of 1.
Of 169 kittens, 127 died before they were six months old due to a trauma caused in most cases by dog attacks and road accidents.
The first litter is usually smaller than subsequent litters.
Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks of age.
Queens normally reach sexual maturity at 5—10 months, and males at 5—7 months.
This varies depending on breed.
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, when they are ready to leave their mother.
They can be surgically spayed or as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.
This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, spraying urine in males and yowling calling in females.
Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed beforeat about three to six months.
In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.
Ecology Habitats A in snowy weather The domestic cat is a and occurs across much of the world.
It can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts.
It is adaptable and now present on are private poker legal in continents exceptand on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the.
The domestic cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's most.
As it is little altered from the wildcat, it can readily interbreed with the wildcat.
This poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in and and possibly also the.
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.
Their habitats include small islands with no human inhabitants.
The close relatives of the domestic cat, the Felis lybica and the F.
Domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.
Feral cats Feral Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state.
They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.
The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.
Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in largewhich occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.
Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the andwith cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.
One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped,against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia andand then released.
Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again.
Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives.
Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.
Impact on prey species Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations.
Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.
Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.
In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.
In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.
However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated.
For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing.
In isolated landmasses, such asthere are often no other native, medium-sized predators including other feline species ; this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.
Native species such as the New Zealand and the Australianfor example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.
Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.
Even in are cats free with ancient and numerous cat populations, such ascats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' such as the numbers of prey available.
This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging.
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent locations such as tall grass are kept under control.
While cats are effective at preventing rodentthey are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.
Impact on birds A black cat eating a The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds.
UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.
A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.
Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of mortality is linked to the domestic cat.
In the recovery of ringed robins and dunnocks31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.
In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as and on bird numbers and variety.
The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.
In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect; where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey.
Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction.
Some of the same factors that have promoted of island over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time.
The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.
The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.
These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence ofsuch as the domestic cat.
Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety" and ground-nesting, have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans A woman holding two cats Cats are common throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million as of 2007.
Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, a 2007 reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international and industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys; and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat.
This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.
Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise ofand are still made into blankets in as believed to help.
In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of in the thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations such as the 's one and over the Internet, but such a task does not seem simple to achieve.
General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.
Cats are popular as a subject of art and photography, made his career photographing cats after his 1949 images of Loco, an especially charming stray taken in, were published around the world.
He is reported to have photographed 90,000 cats during his career and maintained an archive of 225,000 images that he drew from for publications during his lifetime.
Cat show Main article: A is a judged event in which the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.
Both and companion or moggy cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization.
Cats are compared to a breed standard, and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize.
Moggies are judged based on their temperament.
Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: A is a theme whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.
Ailurophobia Main article: Greek αἴλουρος ailouros'cat' and φόβος phóbos'fear' is a fear of cats.
The term may also be used to mean a hatred of cats.
Cat bites Main article: Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive.
Complications from cat bites can develop.
A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets.
This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep.
Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps that cause.
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Cats can be or infested with, or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.
In some cases, the cat exhibits no of the disease, However, the same disease can then become evident in a human.
The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and status of the person.
Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat and exiting the cat's body.
Some of the infections of most concern includeand.
History and mythology A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat In ancient Egypt, cats werewith the goddess often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.
Families took their dead cats to the sacred city ofwhere they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.
The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of and respectively, playing with their pet cats.
Even during later times, were far more commonly kept as pets and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.
The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail", : 57 but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".
Cats are rarely mentioned inbut does remark in his that "female cats are naturally.
During themany of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the.
Cats are often shown in icons of and of click and, according toon the same night that Mary gave birth toa virgin cat in gave birth to a kitten.
Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during theas were carried on to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.
In Japan, the cat is a symbol of good fortune.
In, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.
Inthe first cat was living in the house of the first man as a pet that got rid of.
The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.
It is also written that neither cats nor are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.
Although no species are sacred in Islam.
Some Western writers have stated had a favorite cat.
He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".
The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later saint,centuries after Muhammad.
One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "" Father of thein reference to his documented affection to cats.
Superstitions and rituals Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them.
Many cultures have negative about cats.
An example would be the belief that a "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' used to augment a witch's powers and skills.
The killing of cats in Medieval, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day cat parade.
In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment.
According tothe assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally ".
The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck.
The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands.
In 1648crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall.
But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris.
At midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed online what are i can games play some fun cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people.
Similarly atin the of thecats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire.
In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives, while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.
The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations.
Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive to twist their bodies around.
Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.
Lifespan Main articles: and The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent decades.
In the early 1980s, it was about seven years, : 33 rising to 9.
Some cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, with the oldest known cat,dying at a verified age of 38.
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.
Disease Main article: Diseases which affect cats include acute infections, parasitic infestations, injuries; and chronic diseases such as, and.
About 250 heritable have been identified in cats, many similar to human.
The high level of similarity among the of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using that were originally developed are cats free use in humans, as well as the use of cats as in the study https://new-fit.ru/are/what-games-are-free-on-xbox-live-in-june.html the human diseases.
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External links This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Cat" dated 2007-05-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
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By If you want to for free, the secret is knowing where are cats free look.
Many shelters charge a fee, but there are still some little-known free resources for finding local kittens in need of homes.
Free Kittens Online Finding your cat online could be just a few clicks away, are cats free it may take some time, but there are several places listed below where with just a little effort, time, and patience you might be able to find your perfect kitty.
US covers every pet imaginable just type in "free kitten," hit search, scroll down and keep your eye on the right-hand corner for the those that are free.
Facebook Groups Facebook groups cover everything imaginable, including free kittens.
Just go to your FB page, type "free kitten" into the search bar, click search and scroll through the list.
There are a lot of "Free Kitten" public Groups on Facebook.
You'll find these groups in most states and others that are not location specific.
Just select pets from the first drop-down, choose free pets to good homes from the second drop-down, type in "kitten" and your location, then hit search.
You can also sort by 'lowest price,' bringing the free kittens up to the top of your results.
Simple Pet Care Simple Pet Care has a listing of free kittens from around the country.
Go to their home web page, visit web page down a bit, look for the "" section and click on free kittens and cats.
Craigslist is an online community bulletin board that features classified ads in most major cities.
It also has a specific forum devoted to pets, where you can scan listings.
On Craigslist, select your city, and you'll be taken to its page.
On your city's page type "pets" in the search bar, click on it and select "pets for sale" from the drop-down list.
When the next page opens enter "free kittens" in the search bar and click search.
This is a great source for local free are cats free near you.
Recycler is another site that has a varied array of offerings, among these are free kittens.
Here you just enter you want "free kitten," the city you're nearest and select "Pets" from the drop-down menu and click search.
Adoption Fairs Almost every year theand other local programs have free adoption fairs.
As an example, hosted a fee-waived cat and kitten adoption event, titled "Feline Freedom Adoption Frenzy" in July 2017 and the wavered as part of "Adopt-A-Cat" month in June 2017.
So, go to your local group's home web page, click on the events page, bookmark it and check click at this page regularly.
You might also want to contact them through their website and ask when their next free adoption event will be held.
Your browser does not support the video tag.
Where to Find Free Local Kittens It might be difficult to find a kitten online that's near where you live.
However, you can begin by asking your neighbors, friends and family to spread the word.
Clinic employees are often aware of clients whose cat is about to have kittens they want to give away.
While they may not be able to give you client information, they can pass your information along to a client.
If the person you connect with doesn't know of any at that moment, leave your name and number in case some kittens show up.
These places usually have a bulletin board where you can pin are cats free />When pinning your "kitten wanted" notice, check for announcements advertising kittens are cats free to a good home.
If they are overrun with kittens, they might just give you a kitten without an adoption fee.
It never hurts to ask.
Fostering will let you know if a kitten is right for you, plus if you make the fostering permanent, some organizations will waive the adoption fee.
Most don't keep the animals they pick up alive, and they might be willing to give you a kitten rather than the poor baby.
No Free Kittens The reality is you'll have many costs associated with adopting a free kitten.
Free often comes with a hidden price tag that could translate into several costly trips to your local veterinarian for necessary tests, procedures.
When all this is taken into consideration, you might decide it's best to visit your local animal shelter.
Shelter cats usually have an adoption fee, but these kittens will have ortested, vaccinated, and.
If you adopt a free cat, you'll have to cover all of this yourself, and that cost will be more than the adoption fee you'd pay to the shelter.
Share Your Life With a Kitten When youyou're making a lifelong commitment.
They'll rely on you to take and keep them safe.
They need and water, proper veterinary care, and lots of attention.
Even when kittens grow up, they're still fun and entertaining companions.
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